Language functions

The following is an extensive, but not exhaustive, list of a variety of functions, which form a part of communication between people, and could be useful in any teaching approach:

accepting or refusing expressing: introducing
advising ability or inability inviting
agreeing or disagreeing certainty or uncertainty justifying
analysing or interpreting comprehension (or lack of)

leave-taking, farewelling, or closing (letter)

apologising or forgiving

approving or disapproving hope

making arrangements

asking for / giving information intention mediating or conciliating
asking for, giving or refusing permission interest, lack of interest, indifference or boredom negotiating

attracting attention

like, dislike or preference

persuading or dissuading

blaming planning
clarifying needs, wishes or wants praising or blaming
comparing obligation promising
complaining opinion

recounting experiences / events

confirming / admitting / denying possibility or impossibility reporting
congratulating or complimenting probability or improbability requesting
contradicting regret responding
defining surprise seeking / requesting information
describing understanding


discussing greeting or welcoming thanking
encouraging hypothesising warning
evaluating identifying  
explaining instructing / directing / ordering



Aleksandra Ceferin

Aleksandra Ceferin (M.A., B.A., Dip.Ed.) has introduced Slovenian language as a school subject in Australian school system and founded the Slovenian Teachers' Association of Victoria in 1976. She has extensive experience in language education: as teacher, lecturer, curriculum coordinator, course writer, language consultant and manager, VCE State Reviewer and Chief Examiner. Since 1998 she has been the President of ISSV and the manager and chief editor of its projects. Aleksandra visits Slovenian annually, establishing and maintaining contacts with Slovenia, and initiating exchanges and cooperation between organizations. In 2004 she was the recipient of the National Education Award of RS Slovenia.