Declension

Slovenian expresses with its endings not only number and gender, but also relationships between the different words in the sentences (which in English are expressed by means of prepositions). There are a total of six forms for these relationships – which are called cases.

They have the following names: nominative, genitive, dative, accusative, locative and instrumental. (the first four cases are as in Latin).
For the most part nouns are declined according to the following four patterns:


Singular

Plural
miz-a -o -e -i -i -o miz-e -e -am -ah -ami
nit- -i -i -i -jo nit-i -i -i -im -ih -mi
korak- -a -u -u -om korak-i -e -ov -om -ih -i
mest-o -o -u -u -u -om mest-a -a -om -ih -i

Dual
miz-i -i -ama -ah -ama
nit-i -i -i -ima -ih -ima
korak-a -a -ov -oma -ih -i
mest-i -i -oma -ih -i

1. Some nouns have instead of –jo and –mi the endings –ijo and –imi. Instead of –im –ih –ima some have –em –eh -em: kostem.
2. If the noun refers to an animate being, it has the accusative ending -a (človek, človeka).
3. Some nouns have the ending –u: most mostu.
4. Many nouns lengthen the stem with –ov in the plural: sinovi; these have in the G. Pl. the ending: sinovi – sinov.

Adjectives and most pronouns are declined like this:
 

Singular

Masculine:
lep-
– /-ega
-ega
-emu
-em
-im
Feminine:
-a
-o
-e
-i
-i
-o
Neuter
-o
– /-ega
-ega
-emu
-em
-im
Plural
Masculine:
lep-i
-e
-ih
-im
-ih
-imi
Feminine:
-e
-e
Neuter
-a
-a
   

Dual

Masculine:
lep-a
-a
-ih
-ima
-ih
-ima
Feminine:
-i
-i
Neuter
-i
-i
 

Personal Pronouns are declined:


Singular
1. Person:
jaz
mene/me
mene/me
meni/mi
meni
menoj/mano
2. Person:
ti
tebe/te
tebe/te
tebi/ti
tebi
teboj/tabo
Reflexive:
sebe/se
sebe/se
sebi/si
sebi
seboj/sabo
3. Person
Masculine:
on
njega/ga
njega/ga
njemu/mu
njem
njim
Feminine:
ona
njo/jo
nje/je
njej/ji
njej
njo
Neuter
ono
njega/ga
njega/ga
njemu/mu
njem
njim

 

Plural
1. Person
Masculine:
mi
nas/nas
nas/nas
nam/nam
nas
nami
Feminine:
me
2. Person
Masculine:
vi
vas/vas
vas/vas
vam/vam
vas
vami
Feminine:
ve
3. Person
Masculine:
oni
njih/jih
njih/jih
njim/jim
njih
njimi
Feminine:
one
Neuter
ona

 

Dual
1. Person
Masculine:
midva
naju/naju
naju/naju
nama/nama
naju
nama
Feminine:
medve
2. Person
Masculine:
vidva
vaju/vaju
vaju/vaju
vama/vama
vaju
vama
Feminine:
vedve
3. Person
Masculine:
onadva
njiju/ju
njiju/ju
njima/jima
njiju
njima
Feminine:
onidve
Neuter
The interrogative and relative pronouns kdo, kdor and kaj, kar are declined like this:
“who”
kdo
koga
koga
komu
kom
kom
“one who”
kdor
kogar
kogar
komur
komer
komer
“what”
kaj
kaj
česa
čemu
čem
čim
“what”
kar
kar
česar
čemur
čemer
čimer

Nekdo or marsikdo are declined as kdo; nihče and vsakdo as kdor (e.g.nikogar) etc.
As kaj are also declined: nekaj, marsikaj, as kar also nič (Gen. ničesar).
The other pronouns are declined like adjectives, but ta and ves are exceptional: instr. Sg. Is tem, vsem; in the plural they are declined like this:

Masculine: ti te teh tem teh temi
Feminine: te

Numerals are declined as adjectives, cardinal numbers like this:

Value 2:
Masculine: dva dva dveh dvema dveh dvema
Feminine: dve dve

Value 3:
Masculine: trije tri treh trem treh tremi
Feminine: tri

Value 4:
Masculine: štirje štiri štirih štirim štirih štirimi
Feminine: štiri

Value 5:
Masc./Fem. pet pet petih petim petih petimi

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Aleksandra Ceferin
Aleksandra Ceferin

Aleksandra Ceferin (M.A., B.A., Dip.Ed.) has introduced Slovenian language as a school subject in Australian school system and founded the Slovenian Teachers' Association of Victoria in 1976. She has extensive experience in language education: as teacher, lecturer, curriculum coordinator, course writer, language consultant and manager, VCE State Reviewer and Chief Examiner. Since 1998 she has been the President of ISSV and the manager and chief editor of its projects. Aleksandra visits Slovenian annually, establishing and maintaining contacts with Slovenia, and initiating exchanges and cooperation between organizations. In 2004 she was the recipient of the National Education Award of RS Slovenia.